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Малчуганите психясват от компютърните игри

https://blitz.bg/vlez-v-chas/malchuganite-psikhyasvat-ot-kompyutrnite-igri_news220287.html Blitz.bg София, България 03 Септ. 2013, 13:16 1413 прочита 0 коментара
Избавлението от компютърната зависимост е толкова трудно, колкото и при наркоманите
<div>На&shy;пос&shy;ле&shy;дък за&shy;чес&shy;тя&shy;ват публикациите за то&shy;ва, че ком&shy;пю&shy;тър&shy;ни&shy;те иг&shy;ри влу&shy;дя&shy;ват под&shy;рас&shy;т&shy;ва&shy;щи&shy;те. На тях им ом&shy;ръз&shy;ва да стре&shy;лят във вир&shy;ту&shy;ал&shy;ност&shy;та, граб&shy;ват ис&shy;тин&shy;с&shy;ко оръ&shy;жие и за&shy;поч&shy;ват да гър&shy;мят по жи&shy;ви хо&shy;ра. Да си спом&shy;ним слу&shy;чая от края на миналия месец, когато в щата Луизиана, осемгодишно дете, което от дълго време играело компютърната игра &bdquo;Стрелец&rdquo;, застреля 90-годишната си баба.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>В пси&shy;хи&shy;ат&shy;ри&shy;я&shy;та от&shy;дав&shy;на съ&shy;щес&shy;т&shy;ву&shy;ва спе&shy;ци&shy;а&shy;лен тер&shy;мин за пси&shy;хи&shy;чес&shy;ки&shy;те на&shy;ру&shy;ше&shy;ния, свър&shy;за&shy;ни с прис&shy;т&shy;рас&shy;ти&shy;е&shy;то към иг&shy;ри&shy;те - иг&shy;ро&shy;ма&shy;ния. Ле&shy;ка&shy;ри&shy;те за&shy;поч&shy;на&shy;ли да се за&shy;ни&shy;ма&shy;ват с то&shy;зи проб&shy;лем още в края на XIX век, ко&shy;га&shy;то нас&shy;тъ&shy;пил пи&shy;кът в по&shy;пу&shy;ляр&shy;ност&shy;та на иг&shy;ри&shy;те на кар&shy;ти. На&shy;уч&shy;на&shy;та ба&shy;за оба&shy;че би&shy;ла ус&shy;та&shy;но&shy;ве&shy;на чак през вто&shy;ра&shy;та по&shy;ло&shy;ви&shy;на на ми&shy;на&shy;лия век. На&shy;ис&shy;ти&shy;на тряб&shy;ва да ка&shy;жем, че в срав&shy;не&shy;ние с дру&shy;ги&shy;те пси&shy;хи&shy;чес&shy;ки за&shy;бо&shy;ля&shy;ва&shy;ния иг&shy;ро&shy;ма&shy;ни&shy;я&shy;та все още е сла&shy;бо изу&shy;че&shy;на.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><b>Иг&shy;ро&shy;ма&shy;ни&shy;я&shy;та е бо&shy;лест,</b></div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>свър&shy;за&shy;на с прис&shy;т&shy;рас&shy;тя&shy;ва&shy;не&shy;то към ха&shy;зар&shy;т&shy;ни иг&shy;ри, в то&shy;ва чис&shy;ло към иг&shy;ри&shy;те в ка&shy;зи&shy;но, на иг&shy;рал&shy;ни ав&shy;то&shy;ма&shy;ти, на кар&shy;ти и към ком&shy;пю&shy;тър&shy;ни&shy;те иг&shy;ри. Иг&shy;ро&shy;ма&shy;ни&shy;я&shy;та мо&shy;же да се про&shy;я&shy;ви ка&shy;то за&shy;бо&shy;ля&shy;ва&shy;не в чист вид и - ко&shy;е&shy;то се случ&shy;ва мно&shy;го по-чес&shy;то - ка&shy;то един от сим&shy;п&shy;то&shy;ми&shy;те на дру&shy;го пси&shy;хич&shy;но за&shy;бо&shy;ля&shy;ва&shy;не: деп&shy;ре&shy;сия, ма&shy;ни&shy;а&shy;кал&shy;ни със&shy;то&shy;я&shy;ния, да&shy;же ши&shy;зоф&shy;ре&shy;ния. Ос&shy;нов&shy;на&shy;та про&shy;я&shy;ва на иг&shy;ро&shy;ма&shy;ни&shy;я&shy;та е нат&shy;рап&shy;чи&shy;ва&shy;та пот&shy;реб&shy;ност неп&shy;ре&shy;къс&shy;на&shy;то да се иг&shy;рае. Сим&shy;п&shy;то&shy;ми&shy;те на за&shy;бо&shy;ля&shy;ва&shy;не&shy;то: чо&shy;век не мо&shy;же да бъ&shy;де от&shy;къс&shy;нат от иг&shy;ра&shy;та, той ста&shy;ва мно&shy;го зат&shy;во&shy;рен, стес&shy;ня&shy;ва се кръ&shy;гът на ин&shy;те&shy;ре&shy;си&shy;те и на об&shy;щу&shy;ва&shy;не&shy;то му, за&shy;поч&shy;ват пси&shy;хи&shy;чес&shy;ки раз&shy;с&shy;т&shy;рой&shy;с&shy;т&shy;ва. При то&shy;ва ако в на&shy;ча&shy;ло&shy;то иг&shy;ра&shy;чът из&shy;пит&shy;ва по&shy;дем на си&shy;ли&shy;те и у не&shy;го въз&shy;ник&shy;ва из&shy;мам&shy;но&shy;то усе&shy;ща&shy;не, че мо&shy;же да на&shy;диг&shy;рае все&shy;ки про&shy;тив&shy;ник, по-къс&shy;но то&shy;ва със&shy;то&shy;я&shy;ние пре&shy;ми&shy;на&shy;ва в упа&shy;дък на си&shy;ли&shy;те и не&shy;ряд&shy;ко в деп&shy;ре&shy;сия.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>Кол&shy;ко&shy;то до не&shy;пос&shy;ред&shy;с&shy;т&shy;ве&shy;но ком&shy;пю&shy;тър&shy;ни&shy;те иг&shy;ра&shy;чи, в по&shy;ве&shy;че&shy;то слу&shy;чаи за&shy;бо&shy;ля&shy;ва&shy;не&shy;то въз&shy;ник&shy;ва у оне&shy;зи, ко&shy;и&shy;то са пред&shy;раз&shy;по&shy;ло&shy;же&shy;ни към пси&shy;хи&shy;чес&shy;ки за&shy;бо&shy;ля&shy;ва&shy;ния, и у хо&shy;ра&shy;та с ано&shy;ма&shy;лия в раз&shy;ви&shy;ти&shy;е&shy;то на лич&shy;ност&shy;та, то&shy;ест ко&shy;га&shy;то чо&shy;век има вро&shy;де&shy;ни ка&shy;чес&shy;т&shy;ва, не&shy;ха&shy;рак&shy;тер&shy;ни за по&shy;ве&shy;че&shy;то хо&shy;ра. Нап&shy;ри&shy;мер - той е из&shy;лиш&shy;но сра&shy;меж&shy;лив или пре&shy;ка&shy;ле&shy;но из&shy;бух&shy;лив.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><b>Сред&shy;на&shy;та въз&shy;раст на иг&shy;ро&shy;ма&shy;ни&shy;те е 12-16 го&shy;ди&shy;ни.</b></div> <div><b>&nbsp;</b></div> <div>Най-чес&shy;то жер&shy;т&shy;ви на иг&shy;ро&shy;ма&shy;ни&shy;я&shy;та ста&shy;ват оне&shy;зи, ко&shy;и&shy;то пред&shy;по&shy;чи&shy;тат т.нар. &quot;пу&shy;цал&shy;ки&quot; - то&shy;ест иг&shy;ри&shy;те, ко&shy;и&shy;то не изис&shy;к&shy;ват осо&shy;бе&shy;но ин&shy;те&shy;лек&shy;ту&shy;ал&shy;но нап&shy;ре&shy;же&shy;ние. Сред хо&shy;ра&shy;та, пред&shy;по&shy;чи&shy;та&shy;щи жан&shy;ра на &quot;стра&shy;те&shy;ги&shy;и&shy;те&quot; или &quot;ку&shy;ес&shy;то&shy;ве&shy;те&quot;, бол&shy;ни по прин&shy;цип ня&shy;ма. За смет&shy;ка на то&shy;ва оба&shy;че се случ&shy;ва пре&shy;ка&shy;ле&shy;но&shy;то ув&shy;ле&shy;че&shy;ние по ча&shy;та да из&shy;ло&shy;жи на опас&shy;ност не&shy;мал&shy;ко хо&shy;ра. Изоб&shy;що спо&shy;ред пси&shy;хо&shy;ло&shy;зи&shy;те ча&shy;то&shy;ве&shy;те са по&shy;лез&shy;ни, до&shy;кол&shy;ко&shy;то чо&shy;век мо&shy;же да се раз&shy;к&shy;ре&shy;пос&shy;ти в тях, да по&shy;го&shy;во&shy;ри на вся&shy;как&shy;ви те&shy;ми. За чо&shy;век с бол&shy;на пси&shy;хи&shy;ка оба&shy;че те мо&shy;же да са вред&shy;ни. Иг&shy;ро&shy;ма&shy;нът в по&shy;ве&shy;че&shy;то слу&shy;чаи из&shy;мис&shy;ля за се&shy;бе си ле&shy;ген&shy;да, а пос&shy;ле до&shy;тол&shy;ко&shy;ва се вжи&shy;вя&shy;ва в нея, че чес&shy;то за&shy;поч&shy;ва сам да вяр&shy;ва в то&shy;ва, че е друг чо&shy;век. В ре&shy;зул&shy;тат на то&shy;ва се раз&shy;ви&shy;ва раз&shy;д&shy;во&shy;е&shy;ние на лич&shy;ност&shy;та. Но пак пов&shy;та&shy;ря&shy;ме: ча&shy;тът не е пря&shy;ка при&shy;чи&shy;на за за&shy;бо&shy;ля&shy;ва&shy;не - той са&shy;мо мо&shy;же да про&shy;во&shy;ки&shy;ра по-на&shy;та&shy;тъш&shy;но&shy;то раз&shy;ви&shy;тие на ве&shy;че съ&shy;щес&shy;т&shy;ву&shy;ва&shy;що пси&shy;хи&shy;чес&shy;ко за&shy;бо&shy;ля&shy;ва&shy;не.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>И все пак са&shy;ма по се&shy;бе си ком&shy;пю&shy;тър&shy;на&shy;та иг&shy;ра но&shy;си пол&shy;за, твър&shy;дят пси&shy;хо&shy;ло&shy;зи&shy;те. С по&shy;мощ&shy;та на иг&shy;ра&shy;та, ако се взе&shy;ме то&shy;ва по&shy;ня&shy;тие ка&shy;то ця&shy;ло, чо&shy;век се обу&shy;ча&shy;ва на всич&shy;ки жи&shy;тей&shy;с&shy;ки на&shy;ви&shy;ци.&nbsp; При то&shy;ва иг&shy;ра&shy;та по&shy;ма&shy;га в сне&shy;ма&shy;не&shy;то на емо&shy;ци&shy;о&shy;нал&shy;но&shy;то нап&shy;ре&shy;же&shy;ние, на аг&shy;ре&shy;си&shy;я&shy;та. Не&shy;що по&shy;ве&shy;че - да&shy;же за пси&shy;хич&shy;но&shy;бол&shy;ни&shy;те от&shy;дав&shy;на са раз&shy;ра&shy;бо&shy;те&shy;ни спе&shy;ци&shy;ал&shy;ни иг&shy;ри - все&shy;въз&shy;мож&shy;ни пси&shy;хо&shy;ло&shy;ги&shy;чес&shy;ки тес&shy;то&shy;ве, тре&shy;нин&shy;ги във фор&shy;ма&shy;та на иг&shy;ра, по&shy;ма&shy;га&shy;щи сре&shy;щу раз&shy;лич&shy;ни за&shy;бо&shy;ля&shy;ва&shy;ния.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><b>Впро&shy;чем и са&shy;ма&shy;та иг&shy;ро&shy;ма&shy;ния се под&shy;да&shy;ва на ле&shy;че&shy;ние. </b></div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>Са&shy;мо че из&shy;бав&shy;ле&shy;ни&shy;е&shy;то от нея - как&shy;то и от мно&shy;го дру&shy;ги пси&shy;хи&shy;чес&shy;ки за&shy;бо&shy;ля&shy;ва&shy;ния - е мно&shy;го труд&shy;но. За то&shy;ва мо&shy;гат да оти&shy;дат и го&shy;ди&shy;ни, при ко&shy;е&shy;то са въз&shy;мож&shy;ни ре&shy;ци&shy;ди&shy;ви. Ле&shy;че&shy;ни&shy;е&shy;то е ос&shy;нов&shy;но ме&shy;ди&shy;ка&shy;мен&shy;тоз&shy;но. Има спе&shy;ци&shy;ал&shy;ни пси&shy;хот&shy;роп&shy;ни пре&shy;па&shy;ра&shy;ти - нев&shy;ро&shy;леп&shy;ти&shy;ци, ан&shy;ти&shy;деп&shy;ре&shy;сан&shy;ти, ка&shy;то за все&shy;ки чо&shy;век схе&shy;ма&shy;та на при&shy;е&shy;ма&shy;не&shy;то им е стро&shy;го ин&shy;ди&shy;ви&shy;ду&shy;ал&shy;на. При то&shy;ва се при&shy;ла&shy;гат пси&shy;хо&shy;те&shy;ра&shy;пия, ав&shy;тот&shy;ре&shy;нинг, ог&shy;ром&shy;на ра&shy;бо&shy;та про&shy;веж&shy;дат пси&shy;хо&shy;ло&shy;зи&shy;те.</div> <div>Раз&shy;би&shy;ра се, ле&shy;ку&shy;ва&shy;не&shy;то на иг&shy;ро&shy;ма&shy;ни&shy;я&shy;та е мно&shy;го по-труд&shy;но, от&shy;кол&shy;ко&shy;то пре&shy;дот&shy;в&shy;ра&shy;тя&shy;ва&shy;не&shy;то й. Ето за&shy;що ако сте от&shy;к&shy;ри&shy;ли, че де&shy;те&shy;то ви про&shy;я&shy;вя&shy;ва по&shy;ви&shy;шен ин&shy;те&shy;рес към ком&shy;пю&shy;тър&shy;ни&shy;те иг&shy;ри и осо&shy;бе&shy;но ако на та&shy;зи поч&shy;ва у не&shy;го въз&shy;ник&shy;ват пси&shy;хич&shy;ни раз&shy;с&shy;т&shy;рой&shy;с&shy;т&shy;ва, неп&shy;ре&shy;мен&shy;но се кон&shy;сул&shy;ти&shy;рай&shy;те с пси&shy;хо&shy;лог. Не е из&shy;к&shy;лю&shy;че&shy;но той да пре&shy;по&shy;ръ&shy;ча иг&shy;ро&shy;ма&shy;нът да бъ&shy;де за&shy;ве&shy;ден на&nbsp; пси&shy;хи&shy;а&shy;тър.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Са&shy;ми&shy;те гей&shy;мъ&shy;ри пък тряб&shy;ва, пър&shy;во, неп&shy;ре&shy;мен&shy;но да до&shy;зи&shy;рат ра&shy;бо&shy;та&shy;та с ком&shy;пю&shy;тъ&shy;ра; вто&shy;ро, да иг&shy;ра&shy;ят по&shy;ве&shy;че на ин&shy;те&shy;лек&shy;ту&shy;ал&shy;ни иг&shy;ри и най-важ&shy;но&shy;то - про&shy;я&shy;вя&shy;вай&shy;ки ця&shy;ла&shy;та си&shy;ла на во&shy;ля&shy;та си, да не се ог&shy;ра&shy;ни&shy;ча&shy;ват са&shy;мо с ма&shy;ши&shy;на&shy;та и кол&shy;ко&shy;то мо&shy;же по&shy;ве&shy;че да об&shy;щу&shy;ват не с вир&shy;ту&shy;ал&shy;ни, а с ре&shy;ал&shy;ни хо&shy;ра. Пом&shy;не&shy;те: ако чо&shy;век пок&shy;рай ком&shy;пю&shy;тъ&shy;ра има дру&shy;ги ув&shy;ле&shy;че&shy;ния и ин&shy;те&shy;ре&shy;си, ако ра&shy;бо&shy;ти, учи, спор&shy;ту&shy;ва, ако има пос&shy;то&shy;я&shy;нен кръг от при&shy;я&shy;те&shy;ли, въз&shy;мож&shy;ност&shy;та да ста&shy;не жер&shy;т&shy;ва на иг&shy;ро&shy;ма&shy;ни&shy;я&shy;та е ни&shy;щож&shy;но мал&shy;ка.&nbsp;

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